Osmosis is a net diffusion of water between two solutions that differ in
solute concentration and that are separated by a selectively permeable
Hypertonic solution – higher solute concentration outside the cell.
Hypotonic solution – lower solute concentration outside the cell.
Isotonic solution have the same solute concentration outside and inside the

Potato cells in 0% solution of salt will swell up. Potato will gain weight,
because net movement of water will be into the cells. Water moves down the
concentration gradient.
Potato cells in 2% and 3% solutions will shrink. Water moves out of the
cells to regions of greater solute concentration.
Potato cells in 1% solution will change little in cell size or shape. The
difference between solution concentration and potato concentration is
small. So there is no big movement of water.

Materials: Knife, potato, 4 salt solutions ( 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%), paper, razor

Cut 12 plugs from similar potatoes. Remove the ends of each plug and skin.
Make up four solutions of salt ( 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%). Weight the plug sets.
Place plug sets into each solution and continue to measure or weight them
at specified time intervals. Report mean values only fo measurements or
weights. Determine the percent change in lenght or weight for the potato in
each solution. Calculate the exact percent of salt in the potato cell from
the graphed data.

|Salt |Initial |Weight of plug sets after some |Mean |
|Solution|weight |time: |percentage |
|s |(g) | |change in |
| | | |weight |
| | |12 min.|22 min.|40 min.|52 min.| |
|0% |5.61 |5.87 |6.01 |6.13 |6.25 |11.4% |
|1% |8.84 |8.85 |8.87 |8.90 |8.86 |0.22% |
|2% |10.02 |9.61 |6.51 |9.20 |8.99 |-10.3% |
|3% |6.64 |6.01 |5.77 |5.48 |5.31 |-20% |

We can’t compare the changes in weight using grams, because each plug set
had different initial weight before placing them into salt solutions.

Conclusion and evaluation:
From the graphed data the percent of salt in the potato cell is 1.1%. The
original potato cell concentration is 0.9%. The error could be, because the
water outside potato has influence on weight and not accurate measurement
of mass by not exact scales, which showed only one decimal place.
If the concentration of water is not equal across a potato cell membrane
(concentration of water outside the sell is more or less than [pic]0.9%),
osmosis tends to occur. Water will move osmotically to regions of greater
solute concentration (from hypotonic to hypertonic solutions). If water
concentration outside and inside the cell is equal, water shows no net
osmotic movement from one to the other – isotonic solutions.
The experiment can be improved: Firstly, by drying potato from water
outside the potato. Secondly, by using scales, which have more accuracy.

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