Ministry of Education of the Ukraine
Section: Area stadies
Done by Lena Kozachenok
FROM THE LAND CALLED BERINGIA
Origins of Alaska’s Native Groups
No one knows exactly when people first found the land that would be
Some anthropologists believe that people migrated from Asia to North
America as long as 40,000 years ago. Others argue it was as recent as
15,000 years ago.
Whenever, the consensus is that they came from Asia by way of a
northern land bridge that once connected Siberia and Alaska.
That land bridge, now recalled as Beringia, was the first gateway to
Alaska. But these first visitors were hardly tourists intent on exploring
new worlds. Rather they were simply pursuing their subsistence way of life
as they followed great herds of grazing mammals across the grassy tundra
and gentle steppes of Beringia.
They came sporadically through many millennia.. in waves of different
ethnic backgrounds/generations of people and animals..hunters and hunted.
As the Ice Age drew to an end and the seas claimed the land, these people
moved to higher and drier places—the land that, as the continents drifted
apart, would become Alaska.
Some groups settled in the Arctic. Others traversed the mountain
passes to other parts of Alaska. While still others migrated through
Alaska, continuing on to distant lands—perhaps as far as South America!
Those who made Alaska their permanent home make up the state’s four
major anthropological group: Eskimos, Aleuts, Athabascans, and Northwest
While all four groups shared certain basic similarities—all hunted,
fished and gathered food—they developed distinctive cultures and sets of
Flexible Residents of the Arctic
The Eskimos were primarily a coastal people, setting along the shores
of the Arctic and Bering seas.
For millennia they lived a simple, subsistence life—much as they
still do today—by harvesting the fish and mammals of the seas, the fruits
and game of the land. Somehow they learned how to thrive despite the
demanding conditions of the Arcitc.
Their sense of direction was keen, almost uncanny. Traveling in a
straight line, sometimes through snowstorms and whiteouts, they found their
way around the mostly featureless terrain by noting wind direction, the
position of the stars, the shape and size of a snowdrift.
And they were resourceful. In a land where the summer sun stays at eye-
level for weeks on end, never setting below the horizon, the Eskimos
fashioned the first sun-visor—which also doubled as a snowmask to protect
their eyes from the wind-driven snow!
Nomads of the Interior
Like the Eskimos, the Athabascans were skillful hunters, but they
depended more on large land mammals for their subsistence—tracking moose
and migrating caribou.
When it came to fishing, the Athabascans were absolutely ingenious,
snaring fish with hooks, lures, traps and nets that are the fascination of
modern day anglers who visit their camps.
Generally nomadic, they lived in small, simply organized bands of a
few families, and whenever possible pitched their camps in the sheltered
white spruce forests of the Interior. Some adventurous tribes, however,
wandered all the way to the Southwest United States to become kin to the
Navajos and Apaches.
Born of the Sea
For the Aleuts, life centered around the sea as they distributed
themselves among the 70-some islands in the Aleutian chain across the North
Life here was somewhat more benign that in the Arctic, though wind
storms were sometimes strong enough to blow rocks around!
Since their food supply was rich, varied and readily available, the
Aleuts had time to develop a complex culture. Evidence indicates that they
practiced surgery and that their elaborate burial rituals included
embalming. Instruments. utensils, even their boats (baidars) were made with
amazing beauty and exact symmetry. And everything was fashioned for a
specific purpose—the Aleuts used 30 different kinds of harpoon heads for
different species of game!
Skilled navigators and sailors, the Aleuts had the dubious distinction
of being the first to encounter the white man…Russian fur traders who
took them as slaves to harvest the fur seals in the Pribilofs.
The Northwest Coast Indians:
High Society of Alaska’s Southeast
The milder, more temperate climate and an unlimited supply of salmon
and other seafood’s enabled the Northwest Coast Indians to evolve a way of
life quite different from the Eskimos, Aleuts and Athabascans.
They settled in year-round permanent villages, took slaves, gave
lavish potlatches, and lived their lives according to the strict rules,
rituals, and regulations of their respective clans. Their artwork was
nothing less than masterful…beautiful blankets, finely woven cedarbark
and spruceroot baskets magnificent totem creations.
From the Russian Empire to the United States of America
Treaty of Cession 15 Stat. 539 Treaty concerning the Cession of the
Russian Possessions in North America by his Majesty the Emperor of all the
Russias to the United States of America; Concluded March 30, 1867; Ratified
by the United States May 28, 1867; Exchanged June 20, 1867; Proclaimed by
the United States June 20, 1867. BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA A PROCLAMATION Whereas, a treaty between the United States of
America and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias was concluded and
signed by their respective plenipotentiaries at the city of Washington, on
the thirtieth day of March, last, which treaty, being in the English and
French languages, is, word for word, as follows: The United States of
America and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, being desirous of
strengthening, if possible, the good understanding which exists between
them, have, for that purpose, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries: the
President of the United States, William H. Seward, Secretary of State; and
His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Privy Councillor Edward de
Stoeckl his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United
States. And the said Plenipotentiaries, having exchanged their full
powers, which were found to be in due form, have agreed upon and signed the
following articles: ARTICLE I His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias
agrees to cede to the United States, by this convention, immediately upon
the exchange of the ratifications thereof, all the territory and dominion
now possessed by his said Majesty on the continent of America and in the
adjacent islands, the same being contained within the geographical limits
herein set forth, to wit: The eastern limit is the line of demarcation
between the Russian and the British possessions in North America, as
established by the convention between Russia and Great Britain, of February
28 — 16, 1825, and described in Articles III and IV of said convention, in
the following terms: III. «Commencing from the southernmost point of the
island called Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of
54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and the 133d
degree of west longitude (meridian of Greenwich,) the said line shall
ascend to the north along the channel called Portland channel, as far as
the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north
latitude; from this last-mentioned point, the line of demarcation shall
follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast as far as
the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude (of the
same meridian;) and finally, from the said point of intersection, the said
meridian line of the 141st degree, in its prolongation as far as the Frozen
ocean. IV. «With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the
preceding article, it is understood — «1st. That the island called Prince
of Wales Island shall belong wholly to Russia,» (now, by this cession, to
the United States.) «2nd. That whenever the summit of the mountains which
extend in a direction parallel to the coast from the 56th degree of north
latitude to the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude
shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the
ocean, the limit between the British possessions and the line of coast
which is to belong to Russia as above mentioned (that is to say, the limit
to the possessions ceded by this convention) shall be formed by a line
parallel to the winding of the coast, and which shall never exceed the
distance of ten marine leagues therefrom.» The western limit within which
the territories and dominion conveyed, are contained, passes through a
point in Behring's straits on the parallel of sixty-five degrees thirty
minutes north latitude, at its intersection by the meridian which passes
midway between the islands of Krusenstern, or Inaglook, and the island of
Ratmanoff, or Noonarbook, and proceeds due north, without limitation, into
the same Frozen ocean. The same western limit, beginning at the same
initial point, proceeds thence in a course nearly southwest through
Behring's straits and Behring's sea, so as to pass midway between the
northwest point of the island of St. Lawrence and the southeast point of
Cape Choukotski, to the meridian of one hundred and seventy-two west
longitude; thence, from the intersection of that meridian, in a
southwesterly direction, so as to pass midway between the island of Attou
and the Copper island of the Kormandorski couplet or group in the North
Pacific ocean, to the meridian of one hundred and ninety-three degrees west
longitude, so as to include in the territory conveyed the whole of the
Aleutian islands east of that meridian. ARTICLE II In the cession of
territory and dominion made by the preceding article are included the right
of property in all public lots and squares, vacant lands, and all public
buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other edifices which are not
private individual property. It is, however, understood and agreed, that
the churches which have been built in the ceded territory by the Russian
government, shall remain the property of such members of the Greek Oriental
Church resident in the territory, as may choose to worship therein. Any
government archives, papers and documents relative to the territory and
dominion aforesaid, which may be now existing there, will be left in the
possession of the agent of the United States; but an authenticated copy of
such of them as may be required, will be, at all times, given by the United
States to the Russian government, or to such Russian officers or subjects
as they may apply for. ARTICLE III The inhabitants of the ceded territory,
according to their choice, reserving their natural allegiance, may return
to Russia within three years; but if they should prefer to remain in the
ceded territory, they, with the exception of uncivilized native tribes,
shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and
immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall be maintained and
protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion.
The uncivilized tribes will be subject to such laws and regulations as the
United States may, from time to time, adopt in regard to aboriginal tribes
of that country. ARTICLE IV His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias
shall appoint, with convenient despatch, an agent or agents for the purpose
of formally delivering to a similar agent or agents appointed on behalf of
the United States, the territory, dominion, property, dependencies and
appurtenances which are ceded as above, and for doing any other act which
may be necessary in regard thereto. But the cession, with the right of
immediate possession, is nevertheless to be deemed complete and absolute on
the exchange of ratifications, without waiting for such formal delivery.
ARTICLE V Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this
convention, any fortifications or military posts which may be in the ceded
territory shall be delivered to the agent of the United States, and any
Russian troops which may be in the territory shall be withdrawn as soon as
may be reasonably and conveniently practicable. ARTICLE VI In
consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States agree to pay at
the treasury in Washington, within ten months after the exchange of the
ratifications of this convention, to the diplomatic representative or other
agent of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, duly authorized to
receive the same, seven million two hundred thousand dollars in gold. The
cession of territory and dominion herein made is hereby declared to be free
and unencumbered by any reservations, privileges, franchises, grants, or
possessions, by any associated companies, whether corporate or incorporate,
Russian or any other, or by any parties, except merely private individual
property holders; and the cession hereby made, conveys all the rights,
franchises, and privileges now belonging to Russia in the said territory or
dominion, and appurtenances thereto. ARTICLE VII When this convention
shall have been duly ratified by the President of the United States, by and
with the advice and consent of the Senate, on the one part, and on the
other by his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the ratifications
shall be exchanged at Washington within three months from the date hereof,
or sooner if possible. In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries
have signed this convention, and thereto affixed the seals of their arms.
Done at Washington, the thirtieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven. [SEAL] WILLIAM H. SEWARD [SEAL]
EDOUARD DE STOECKL And whereas the said Treaty has been duly ratified
on both parts, and the respective ratifications of the same were exchanged
at Washington on this twentieth day of June, by William H. Seward,
Secretary of State of the United States, and the Privy Counsellor Edward de
Stoeckl, the Envoy Extraordinary of His Majesty the Emperor of all the
Russias, on the part of their respective governments, Now, therefore, be
it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States of America,
have caused the said Treaty to be made public, to the end that the same and
every clause and article thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good
faith by the United States and the citizens thereof. In witness whereof, I
have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be
affixed. Done at the city of Washington, this twentieth day of June in the
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, and of the
Independence of the United States the ninety-first. [SEAL] ANDREW JOHNSON
By the President:
WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State
The most important dates in the history of Alaska
— in 1959, Alaska became the 49th State.
— in 1971, the temperature at Prospect Creek, Alaska, dropped to 80
degrees below zero, the lowest temperature ever recorded in the United
— in 1988, PL 100-241, the Alaska Native Claim Settlement Act
Amendments, were signed by President Regan. The amendments gave more
flexibilty to the corporations managing Settlement lands.
— in 1973, the Yukon Native Brotherhood presented a Statement of
Claim to the federal government, stating their position on land claims,
self-goverment and other issues which had been published in January in
«Together Today For Our Children Tomorrow».
— in 1944, the final weld on the Canol pipeline laid on by Bob
Shivel, 20 months after the project began.
— in 1951, after 3 years of rumours, the federal government
approved moving the capital of the Yukon from Dawson City to Whitehorse.
A new Federal Building was constructed in 1952, and the Territorial
Council chambers were moved the following year, with the first meeting
held in Whitehorse in April.
— in 1924, Carl Ben Eielson made Alaska's first Air Mail flight.
March (day unknown)
— in 1812, the Russian American Company establishes a post at Fort
Ross, California to grow crops for their Alaska operations.
— in 1914, a bill authorizing the construction of the government-
financed Alaska Railroad was signed by President Wilson. Construction
started in 1915, and some sections were opened as they were completed,
but the entire line, running from Seward to Fairbanks, was not completed
until July 15, 1923.
— in 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez went aground on Bligh Reef,
pouring almost 11 million gallons of oil into Prince William Sound.
— in 1964, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.4 on the Richter
Scale hits the Anchorage area, killing 115 people and destroying hundreds
— in 1975, the first section of pipe for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline
from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez was laid. By August, 21,600 people were
working on the project. The first oil was put through the 800-mile line
on June 20, 1977.
— in 1867, the United States purchased Alaska for $7,200,000
— in 1951, the Alaska Highway was turned over to Canada, in a
ceremony at Whitehorse.
— in 1898, a series of 5 avalanches in the Chilkoot Pass between
2:00 AM and noon killed over 70 people.
— in 1919, the Yukon finally allowed women to vote in Territorial
elections. Manitoba had been the first province to enfranchise women, in
1916, and federal enfranchisement was passed in May 1918.
May (day unknown)
— in 1904, the first commercial wireless communication facility in
the U.S. opened, between Nome and St. Michael.
— in 1906, the Alaska Delegate Act was passed by Congress, giving
the territory's 40,000 people the right to elect a non-voting delegate to
— in 1778, Captain James Cook entered Prince William Sound.
— in 1778, Captain James Cook entered Cook Inlet.
— in 1894, a resolution of the Privy Council authorizes the North-
West Mounted Police into the Yukon «in the interests of peace and good
government, in the interests also of the public revenue.» By June 26,
Inspector Charles Constantine and Staff-Sergeant Charles Brown were at
Juneau, heading for the goldfields of the British Yukon.
— in 1900, Congress authorized a massive telegraph construction
project in Alaska.
— in 1898, the ice broke on Lake Bennett; within the next few
weeks, 7,080 boats carrying 28,000 people passed the NWMP post at Tagish.
— in 1993, the Umbrella Final Agreement is signed by
representatives of the Council for Yukon Indians and the Yukon and
federal governemnts, establishing the basic format for all 14 Yukon First
Nations land claims agreements.
— in 1942, a large carrier-based Japanese force attacked Dutch
— in 1942, the Japanese landed almost 2,500 troops on the Aleutian
islands of Attu and Kiska. It took a huge Allied force until August 15,
1943 to regain control — the final invasion force numbered 34,426 troops.
— in 1898, the Yukon Territory is created.
— in 197, the first oil was pumped throught the 800-mile Trans-
Alaska Pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez.
July (day unknown)
— in 1786, while charting Lituya Bay, 2 small boats are swamped by
rip tides, and 21 French sailors drown.
— in 1968, the oil riches of Alaska's North Slope, first reported
almost 100 years ago, were confirmed by a drilling program at Prudhoe
Bay. The following year, a total of $990,220,590 was bid in a one-day
lease sale of those properties.
— in 1882, George Krause becomes the first white man allowed to
cross the Chilkat Pass to the interior.
— in 1913, the first airplane in Alaska made a demonstration flight
at Fairbanks, piloted by James V. Lilly.
— in 1799, the Russian American Company is formed by Royal Charter;
they were given a 20-year monopoly on trading on the coast from 55
— in 1919, Louis Beauvette staked the first silver claim at Keno
Hill, in the central Yukon; by 1930 this district was producing 14% of
all the silver mined in Canada.
— in 1897, the Excelsior reaches San Francisco with the first large
shipment of Klondike gold.
— in 1923, the Alaska Railroad was completed, following 8 years of
— in 1741, Vitus Bering, on St. Elias Day, sights the Alaskan
mainland. In honour of the saint, the most prominent peak was named; this
was the first point on the northwest coast named by Europeans.
— in 1897, the Portland reached Seattle with a large shipment of
Klondike, turning the excitement caused by the Excelsior's arrival at San
Francisco into an all-out gold rush.
— in 1902, Felice Pedroni («Felix Pedro») discovered gold in the
Tanana Hills, causing a stampede which resulted in the founding of
— in 1867, Alaska's first post office is authorized, to be opened
— in 1868, the Customs Act is amended to include Alaska.
— in 1900, the White Pass & Yukon Route railroad was completed,
with the Golden Spike driven at Carcross, Yukon.
August (day not known)
— in 1876, twelve whaling ships are trapped by ice near Point
Barrow; 50 men die attempting to reach safety.
— in 1896, a party consisting of George Carmack, his wife Kate,
Skookum Jim, Tagish Charlie and Patsy Henderson stake placer gold claims
on Rabbit Creek, and rename the creek Bonanza Creek.
— in 1732, a Russian expedition under surveyor Mikhail Gvozdev
sights the Alaska mainland at Cape Prince of Wales.
— in 1852, Fort Selkirk is destroyed by a group of Tlingits who
objected to the Hudson's Bay Company trying to break the Tlingit monopoly
on trade with the interior tribes.
— in 1912, the Alaska Territorial Act was passed by Congress.
— in 1778, Captain James Cook turned back south, having reached
Lat. 71 North, Long. 197 West.
September (day not known)
— in 1848, the Hudson's Bay Company builds Fort Selkirk, at the
confluence of the Pelly and Yukon Rivers.
— in 1871, of the 41 whaling ships hunting in the Bering Sea, 32
are trapped by early ice; all of the 1,200 people on the ships escaped,
but 31 of the ships were destroyed the following spring.
— in 1898 gold was discovered near the future site of Nome,
triggering a stampede.
— in 1942, the Alaska Highway opened at Contact Creek, 305 miles
north of Fort Nelson, B.C.
— in 1745, a Russian fur hunter, Mikhail Nevodchikov, reaches Attu
in his search for sea otters.
— in 1895, the North-west Territories was divided into the
Districts of Franklin, Mackenzie, Ungava and Yukon.
— in 1869, the prediction of a total solar eclipse by American
scientist George Davidson so impressed Kohklux, chief of the Chilkat
Indian village of Klukwan, he drew him an incredibly detailed map of a
vast part of the interior of the Yukon and Alaska.
— in 1867, official ceremonies at Sitka transferred Alaska from
Russia to the United States.
— in 1918, the coastal steamer Princess Sophia sunk near Juneau,
killing 463 people, about 10% of the Yukon's white population.
— in 1967, Jean Gordon, the Yukon's first female member of the
Territorial Council, takes her seat.
— in 1741, Vitus Bering died after his ship was wrecked on an
island off the Alaskan coast.
— in 1971, the Alaska Native Claim Settlement Act (ANCSA) was
signed into law by the President. Among the major provisions were the
transfer of title to 40 million acres of land to native corporations, and
a cash payment of $962.5 million.